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Abstract

  • The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest historic web site in Florida and was constructed to defend the colony of St. Augustine.
  • St. Augustine wouldn’t have change into the oldest metropolis within the US with out the development of the Castillo de San Marcos.
  • The fortress was impenetrable by attackers and performed a pivotal position in defending St. Augustine from invasions.

When the primary settlers of the US come to thoughts, many consider the Plymouth Colony or Jamestown with its dark secrets, that made life exceedingly tough for colonists. Based in 1620 and 1606 respectively, these colonies are a few of the earliest within the US. Nevertheless, they aren’t the oldest. As an alternative, two different colonies predate these two; the Roanoke Colony, based in 1585 in North Carolina, and St. Augustine, based in 1565 in Florida.

Whereas the Roanoke Colony would finally disappear only a yr after coming to the US, St. Augustine remained a powerful and thriving colony. It helped that it was backed by the Spanish Crown, on condition that the realm was seen as a necessity to maintain the Spanish Treasure Fleet, which traveled from Mexico to Spain, protected.

Nevertheless, over time it was confirmed that St. Augustine was not as fortified because it appeared. As such, change was wanted to guard the colony. The change got here within the type of a army fort that also stands at present, the Castillo de San Marcos, the oldest historic web site in Florida.

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Historical past Of The Castillo De San Marcos Nationwide Monument

Castillo de San Marcos was constructed to defend the colony of St. Augustine

St. Augustine was settled in 1565. Its settlers had been ordered to get rid of the French settlers who had been at Fort Caroline down the coast in what’s now generally known as Jacksonville. This was simply achieved after an surprising hurricane blew through the area and wiped out the French fleet, leaving only a few troopers at Fort Caroline. All had been dispatched and Spain took management of the realm.

In 1586, after defending St. Augustine from English and French assaults, Sir Francis Drake invaded the city and burned it to the bottom. Nevertheless, not having the manpower obtainable, Drake and his sailors left the realm. St. Augustine was turning into recognized for its violence and bloodshed.

Years after the assault, Spain got here again to the realm to resettle St. Augustine, in line with Historical past. This time although, they acknowledged they wanted to be higher protected. As such, they began constructing a fortress to defend the city in 1672.

This fortress was referred to as Castillo de San Marcos.

Whereas St. Augustine had tried assaults on town over the following decade, the Castillo de San Marcos proved to be impenetrable by attackers.

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It was not till 1763 that Spain misplaced Castillo de San Marcos. It was not from a battle, nonetheless; reasonably, it was due to a commerce deal made with the English during which Florida was given to Britain.

Lower than 20 years later, the area got here again beneath Spanish rule, together with Castillo de San Marcos.

St. Augustine and the Castillo de San Marcos had been ceaselessly misplaced to Spain after the US gained management of Florida because of successful the Second Seminole Battle. Castillo de San Marcos was renamed Fort Marion and have become part of US historical past within the years to return.

In 1860, Florida determined to hitch the Accomplice military. Nevertheless, St. Augustine was beneath Union management. The Union troopers gave over management of Fort Marion to the Confederacy, however that was short-lived. It is because Union troopers got here to the realm with gunboats lower than a yr after the Accomplice Military took management of Fort Marion and proved to be an excessive amount of of a power. Fort Marion was once more beneath the Union Military’s management in 1862 the place it stayed till the conflict ended two years later.

In 1900, the fort was not used as a army base and was named a nationwide monument. Nevertheless, the title of Fort Marion remained till the Nineteen Forties. In 1942, the unique title of Castillo de San Marcos was restored, and has been the title of the nationwide monument ever since.

How And Why To Go to The Castillo De San Marcos Nationwide Monument

Castillo de San Marcos is open seven days per week, excluding Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day

Castillo de San Marcos, San Pablo Bastion

Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the US. It has withstood cannonball fireplace, a sequence of assaults, and the wild climate of Florida for greater than 300 years. As such, to visit the national monument is to go to historical past and see the fort in primarily the situation it was in when constructed within the late 1600s.

The monument to the Spanish occupation of Florida for three centuries was by no means captured in conflict. As such, it turned “an emblem of the cultural and imperial struggles that formed early North America.”

By visiting the Castillo de San Marcos, the rock that was used to construct the huge fortress may be seen and touched to see simply how spectacular it’s. The sheer dimension of the bricks used to construct the fort is a testomony to the sheer will the Spaniards needed to shield their territory fiercely when it was always beneath assault by the French, English, and People.

  • For many who wish to go to the Castillo de San Marcos, the fort is open seven days per week. The one exception is on Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.
  • The monument may be considered from 9:00 AM to five:00 PM. Guests have to go away Castillo de San Marcos by 5:15 PM.

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When selecting to go to the nationwide monument, climate must be considered. Here’s what guests can anticipate, in line with the Nationwide Parks Service:

Time Of Yr: Summer time

Climate: Scorching and excessive humidity

What To Watch For: Vulnerable to thunderstorms

Time Of Yr: Winter

Climate: Cool to delicate

What To Watch For: Chilly wind could make temperatures drop rapidly

Time Of Yr: Spring/Fall

Climate: Reasonable temperatures between 70F to 80F

What To Watch For: Rain and thunderstorms are unlikely

It must also be famous that weekends are the busiest days for visitation, with 3,500 guests not being unusual on Saturdays. Nationwide holidays and prolonged breaks from college additionally show to be busy.

  • Admission is $15.00 for these 16 and over. Kids 15 years and beneath are free if accompanied by an grownup.

How The Castillo De San Marcos Helped St. Augustine Flourish

St. Augustine would by no means have change into the oldest metropolis within the US with out the development of the Castillo de San Marcos


Aerial View Of Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Augustine, Florida, USA
Nationwide Park Service, Wikimedia Commons

Aerial View Of Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument, St. Augustine, Florida, USA 

Immediately, St. Augustine is known as the “ancient city” by those that stay there with lots to see and do in the city. Nevertheless, it will by no means have change into the “oldest frequently inhabited metropolis in the US” had the Castillo de San Marcos by no means been constructed.

It was clear by the various assaults St. Augustine sustained over time that it wanted to be shielded from invaders. The town was solely going to proceed to be burned down and drive the colonists out solely to attempt to rebuild when the English determined to go away the realm. As such, in 1672, Queen Regent Mia of Spain ordered a fortress to be constructed.

The Castillo de San Marcos was constructed out of coquina stone, however not as a result of it was robust — the fabric occurred to be plentiful. The fortress was constructed to guard town from “the bay, inlet, and ocean,” all of the areas at which St. Augustine was weak.

In 1702, the English got here again to attempt to take St. Augustine and close by areas for England. It was when the English used firepower that it was found that cannonballs couldn’t penetrate Castillo de San Marcos’ partitions. The cannonballs both bounced off or sank into the stone.

The English attacked once more in 1740. They once more tried to convey the Castillo de San Marcos to its knees by taking pictures cannonballs at it for 27 days. There was not any harm executed. Due to this, St. Augustine was in a position to flourish.

Centuries later, St. Augustine was not seen as a spot of violence however visionaries noticed it as an up-and-coming vacationer hotspot with a great number of things for visitors to do. Huge infrastructure was put into town, together with a railroad that introduced in guests from throughout Florida and past.

Due to this, St. Augustine is the oldest metropolis in the US at over 450 years previous. A feat that by no means would have occurred had it not been for the safety of the Castillo de San Marcos.

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